C G Jung Biography

The legacy of Jung

Face to face interview with John Freeman 1959

How this subject is treated around the world?

According to a paper presented in March 15th, 2018 to the British Psychoanalytic Council by Warren Colman, Helen Morgan and Jan Wiener, there are over 3000 Jungian analysts throughout the world and 53 societies members of the IAAP – International Association of Analytical Psychology. .

Complete list of Associations as of 2020

As for training, there are 22 Developing Groups in Analytical Psychology around the world, including Russia, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland, China India and some countries in South America. In England, the number one is the  Society of Analytical Psychology, the oldest training organization as such for the United Kingdom. These and some 20 other such organizations are under The British Psychoanalytic Council (BPC) is an association of training institutions and professional associations which have their roots in established psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.   

The Academic World decided in the early 2000 to create a International Association for Jungian Studies and the founding members of the Academy were  Kristine Connidis (Canada), Terence Dawson (Singapore), Don Fredericksen (USA), Leslie Gardner (UK), Ien Hazebroek-Buijs (The Netherlands), Luke Hockley (UK), Lucy Huskinson (UK), Raya Jones (UK), Alberto Lima (Brazil), Renos Papadopoulos (UK), J.Craig Peery (USA), David Rosen (USA), Lee Robbins (USA), Susan Rowland (UK), Andrew Samuels (UK), Nick Stratton (UK), David Tacey (Australia).

Congregating more than half of these 3000 world wide Jungian analysts, the three largest centers of Jungian psychology are:

Deutsch Gesellschaft fur Analytische Pychologie – DGAP

C. G. Jung Institute Zurich

C. G. Jung-Gesellschaft Köln e.V

Those three large organizations for German speaking persons relay on Deirdre Bair’s biography.

In the United States the Institutes are independent by design, but have a board that meets annually to discuss training and an Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts (IRSJA) On both sites Jung’s biographies are simplified on one page.

In the UK all the aforementioned societes do not discuss Jung’s biography and curiously they don’t mention also Deirdre Bair. They offer very condensed short histories about Jung, such as this example. Or this other from IAAP

In France, the S F P A Societé Française de Psychologie Analytique Institut C G Jung France brings together 5 study groups and only SFPA has a biographical presentation on Jung that does not include Deirdre Bair’s biography. Actually they introduce Jung’s ideas and techniques.

In the French Wikipedia, though, there is one of the best all around articles on Analytic Psychology

In Italy ther are four major groups which some how take care of regions, being the AIPA the oldest and the one with more associates.

Italy: Associazione Italiana per lo Studio della Psicologia Analitica — AIPA

Italy: Associazione per la ricerca in Psicologia Analitica — ARPA

Italy: Centro Italiano di Psicologica Analitica — CIPA

Italy: Laboratorio Italiano di Ricerche in Psicologia Analitica — LIRPA

Aparently they all relay on the IAAP brief biography already mentioned

C G Jung’s Biography

Jung’s biography, dictated by him to his secretary Aniella Jaffe, Memories, Dreams and Reflections, is intentionally inaccurate because the facts do not help his image.

There is a purist tendency not to consider this book as authored by him, but by Aniella Jaffé. Deirdre portraits Jung as unwillingly to have done it.

I got involved with these issues mainly in the 1990s (Deirdre Bair’s biography would appear in 2003) and at that time, C.G. Jung-Gesellschaft Köln e.V. presented a biography that had the virtue of not deifying Jung, being practically neutral and good for researching events in his life. I didn’t keep the original, which disappeared, because at the moment, 2020, the Biography the three Institutes present is that of Deirdre Bair, which I discuss separately. I apologize for the translation, which was done with Google translator and corrected with my limited knowledge of the German language.
I decided to keep this translation, because Deirdre Bair’s biography is very long, perhaps too much detailed and I fell that images are helpful to form an idea about Jung. There is no contradiction between this biography and that made by Deirdre Bair, and I compared all events, including adding some narrated by her here.

C G Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961)

It was when the lamp and the telephone were invented. The colonies of the white races abroad were greedily freeing themselves.  Darwin’s teachings are discussed.  Wagner conceived his “synthesis of the arts”, and Boecklin, with his mythological scenes calls Monet paints in one of his pictures simply “Impression”.  Rilke comes to the world in1875 – also he uses, as a poet, the mental interior world.  The same way Carl Gustav Jung is born on 26 July in Kesswil, in the canton Thurgau, as a son of the Evangelist-reformed minister Johann Paul Achilles Jung (1842-1896) and its wife Emilie Priezewerk (1848-1923).

Johann Paul Achilles Jung (1842-1896) and its wife Emilie Priezewerk (1848-1923).

During these years of the nineteen century, old Sigmund Freud is born;  Marx already began to publish the capital.  Einstein will come four years later; Hitler also will be born to the world fourteen years ahead of him. 

The work and the shape Carl Gustav Jung rise up so directly into the topicality of the present that it is worth the small trouble to realize the fact that it came in a time to the world, when some of what our western civilization in the meantime became natural, began to evenly only flow in such a way into the everyday life.  And young Carl grows up in the country, where the time seems to be still somewhat more viscous:  It is this Swiss Protestant land life in a parsonage building, which shapes lastingly his early years. The Jung family originally originates from Mainz.  Carl Gustav Jung (the grand father, which bears the same name), and was deceased in 1864, was appointed when he was  28 years old as Professor to the Medicine Faculty of the Basilea University of Basel, in Switzerland, on recommendation of Alexander of Humboldt  in 1822. He became later Rector of this University. 

University of Basel

In the family the legend of this grandfather is a tradition, and Jung felt very close to him, including for the fact that he bears the same name. The old Jung was supposedly a natural son of Goethe also. Jung’s mother was originated from Basel.  Her family took the Swiss nationality five centuries back and her father, Samuel Priezewerk, was an important theologian and Hebraist, who liked also to try to contact spirits in séances. The second wife of Samuel Priezewerk, Jung’s grandmother, had for 36 hours illusory dead when she was eighteen-year old. Gifted as Mediums to contact with the spirits, just like theology, medicine and natural sciences, were tradition in the family and have a strong connection with the later adjustment of Jung on Psychiatry.  Half year after Jung’s birth the family moved to the Bodensee into the proximity of the Rhine, and is where Jung’s earliest memories are here settled. During nine years, till the birth of his sister, Carl grew up as an only child. 


The relations between his parents is strained already early, with them sleeping in separate rooms and the boy sleeping with his father.  His mother remains several months in the hospital mentally ill.  “the long absence of my mother made difficult for me to be created.  Since that time I was always distrustful, as soon perceived the word love.  The feeling, which connected itself to me with the female element meant:  natural unreliability.  On the other hand, father meant reliability for me. Jung, as a boy suffered from psychosomatic illnesses, and at night was stricken by fear.  His deranged mother teached him his night prayer, which was a “must” every evening.  In its memories Jung, link it with Jesus as His child and describes whom for him this prayer evoked as well as other confusing events, embedding “a kind dead God”.  While all that remains nonsense for his skeptical and minister, in a kind of opposite view, Jung describes his deranged mother with more warmth:  “my nut/mother was to me a very good nut/mother.  It had a large animal warmth…, an expressed literary gift, in good taste and with depth.  But it did not materialize actually anywhere as expression;  it remained hidden behind a really dear thick old woman…  She brought him up with traditional opinions, which one can have, but not adequate to Jung’s unconscious personality which did fit albeit she was extremely powerful – a dark large shape, which possessed inviolable authority – no doubt about it ” 


The Jung family moves to Kleinhueningen near Basel (today a suburb).  Jung plays mostly alone.  The village school brings him to play with companions which he long missed.  Jung description of his own childhood, like it at old age in memories, dreams, thoughts, reads themselves like religious struggles.  Carl is branded by his living at the Church’s parsonage and the pious life led by his parents.  The forms and rites, which are presented to him, however, compared with his own internal experiencing, falls flat and hollow  The child is afflicted by dreams and visions.  Instead of the expected blind faith, he felt he needed a more complex God picture and a faith accordingly, what certainly the implied theological of a blind faiths was incapable to fulfill his convictions. Jung will always reflect in his writings over the psychological aspect of the God idea, always with some form of criticism, not only from theological side, and this happens without a doubt because of his background.  It is repeated to stress that that he speaks only as soul physician and a scientist;  but it leaves always an area open noticeably, in which his early experience applies:  and over it is one to be silent.  At the age of three or four years he experiences his first dream, his “Original revelation”, which he will tell however only when he is thirty-eighty-years old.  This dream accompanies him as a dark adversary to the shaping of the Christian light : “the Phallus of this dream seems to be in any case an underground and not mentioning God.  As such it remained for me in each case by my whole youth and was reminiscent, as if Mr. Jesus the Christ had something which was emphatically presented”  At that time, then he determines, his mental life started being taken by his unconscious.  Jung resistance draws attention in its similarity to that of Nietzsche, likewise a minister son, when he writes in 1881 his famous coining/proclamation “God is dead”.  The spirit-historical context resistance announces for both of them “new horizons in the midst of the God darkness”.  For Jung Nietzsche Zarathustra was wrought after Goethe’s ideas which Jung considered a relative with the same soul.  To Jung as a boy internal experiences it fit like a glove.  “this secret possession shaped me at that time strongly.  I regard it as the substantial trait of my early youth years, as something, that for me was most important.”   

The clergy house of Kleinhüningen, Basel, Switzerland. The psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung grew up here 


In Basel, where Carl visits the High School, he becomes conscious of the poor conditions, in which he had grown up.  A new world opens up by this urban environment and set for him profound experiences, around his eleven to twelve years of age.  On the Munsterplatz he falls down and receives an impact on the head, pushed by another boy.  For one moment he thinks:  “now you do not have to go anymore to the school!”  And, briefly before he wen again into the school, any time it was mentioned, he fainted to stay home.  He insisted so much on that behaviour that the physicians thought it might be epilepsy.  His father gives expression to his despair, imagining that the son could possibly have some incurably ill and unable to earn himself his life and Jung finally understands he has to go to school:  “Aha, there one must work” – and from this moment on he becomes a serious child.  Likewise a further key experience is connected to the Muenster cathedral.   Whenever he passed the Cathedral square and looked up, seeing the building bathed in light and sun drawn against the sky, he saw God shitting on the cathedral, leaving a huge poop under the heavenly throne of God, so big that it collapsed under his weight..  -Carl believed that it was God’s will for him to think these things, because he was submitting to God’s command and that nothing truly bad would happen to anyone who survived tests of courage. He gave himself the credit of the original thought at that point, disdaining his father’s blind belief in the Scriptures, rituals and social behavior of his Swiss ancestors. He felt that his father Paul did not understand or know how to honor the “immediate living God, who is Omnipotent and free, above his Bible and his Church.  Under the impression of these experiences, and still inarticulate conception, he develops two personalities, one that of a school boy stupid and dumb and another one “inside” personality of an old, wise man, which he called No. 1 and No. 2.  He created a play and counter play between the personalities No. 1 and No. 2, which pulled and pushed each other by his whole life. He contended that this did not have to do anything with a split personality in the usual medical sense.  Quite the opposite, Jung wrote retrospectively “they are played with normal human characteristics “. No. 2 remained the determining voice of C.G. Jung for his life .  “Jung main stress of the contrast between the two called it the Copernican revolution in psychology.  In order to protect this he developed psychological theories stating that the goal of each personality growth is a complete implementation of the situation that he lived which was deeply disappointing. On one side the rigid and empty ceremonies of his father which did not corresponded to Jung’s hopes in the way he was moved internally by the Numinous.  Up to this time he didn’t bother to the trouble it was to force himself to the faith imposed on him by his father without understanding. He felt sorry for his father whom he considered worthy of compassion as he would say later “At once I understood the tragic of his occupation and his life “.  The faith connection with the environment had finally broken.  “I had fallen out of the church.  It fulfilled me with mourning all this until years later when it happened the beginning of my study to overshadow all that.”  Into his high age again and again Jung, which did not join a recognized denomination, will appoint it to his personal experience:  “also today I am lonely”, admit he few years before his death, “because there are things I must know which others do not know and do not want at all to know.”   


While young Jung despised Thomas of Aquino and Hegel, but appreciated Kant, for whom he described as “painstaking work on distinguishing between what belongs to me, what is within my reach and what is beyond me, where we cannot reach without suffering damages “. Nietzsche touched him especially in Thus spoke Zarathrustra. He considered Nietzsche on the same plane as Goethe’s Faust. He did not like Greek philosophers, especially Plato, but he had a huge attraction for Greek mythology. He studied Latin and Greek.

Plato, Aristotle and Greek Philosophers
Greek Mithology


Jung’s first work has been grouped as The Zofingia Lectures. Between 1896 an 1899, Jung gave five lectures at the student Zofingia Club of the University of Basel, a club that he  had joined in 1895 while an undergraduate student. Jung’s first two lectures – November 1896 on “The border zones of exact science” and May 1897 on “Some Thoughts on psychology” – give an accurate picture of the contemporary conflict between science (which Jung took to be too narrow trough being materialistic) and spiritualism, the novelty of which appealed the young scientist. These lectures were the following:The too restricted border zones of exact sciences (Lecture I)opened up the realm of the occult (Lecture II) the necessary independence of the researcher and the citizen (Lecture III)epistemology (Lecture IV)and the quest for meaning in religion (Lecture V)These lectures constitutes the whole of Jung’s work and life and resonate to his split personality where the wise old man points to the occult and religion and the eternal youth 


With the death of his father serious financial problems develop.  The student takes over a Sub-assistant position and the selling of a small antique collection of an aunt.  The poverty caught up it.  With an attendance with Mrs. Rauschenbach, to a rich acquaintance of the family, which he knew from his child days, he, when he steps into the house, sees a girl on its stairs.  It is their fourteen-year old daughter.  “there I knew:  That is my wife!  I was deeply shaken by it because it was only for a short instant ”  Seven years later they got married.  At the end of the first academic year Jung encounters spiritualist literature.  There is for the medical student “the first reports over objective psychological phenomena”.  Spiritistic meetings, or seances, like he saw at the end of the 19th Century, which took place with the mediunic talents of his cousin Helene Priezewerk.  Jung, at the same time fascinated and scientifically reserved, takes part in seances over two years.  The yield forms the basis for his thesis for the psychology and pathology of so-called occult phenomena, which he submits in 1902 at the University of Zurich.  Nevertheless it does not pull him to psychiatry, once that the regular path should be surgery or internal medicine. Jung’s first work has been grouped as The Zofingia Lectures. Between 1896 an 1899, Jung gave five lectures at the student Zofingia Club of the University of Basel, a club that he  had joined in 1895 while an undergraduate student. Jung’s first two lectures – November 1896 on “The border zones of exact science” and May 1897 on “Some Thoughts on psychology” – give an accurate picture of the contemporary conflict between science (which Jung took to be too narrow trough being materialistic) and spiritualism, the novelty of which appealed the young scientist. These lectures were mentioned previously.

These lectures constitutes the whole of Jung’s work and life and resonate to his split personality where the wise old man points to the occult and religion and the eternal youth


The turn of the century marks a turning point in the psychiatry.  Sigmund Freud publishes His Dream Interpretation.  On 10 December C G. Jung was appointed assistant in the psychiatric hospital Burgholzli starting with professor Eugen Bleuler, one of the most important psychiatrists of its time.  At first Jung a therapeutic interest lies far, it is the pathological variants of the so-called normality, which fascinate him.  The question, which employs Jung at the very front and to us nowadays seems naturally, i.e. “which proceeds in the spirit patients?”,  at that time hardly cared anybody.  The use was to mark the patients with a standard diagnosis and leave it as such and the thing was seized off, and thus the case was mostly settled.  In this situation Freud became a trailblazer to Jung by his work about hysteria and dreams, which brought the psychological question into the psychiatry.  Up to the year 1905 Jung worked as an nonsalaried employee physician on the Burgholzli.  His actual scientific work begins with diagnostic association studies;  the experiments bring results, which should shape the image of the Zurich school lastingly.  Jung’s develops a theory “feeling-stressed complexes” (later called feeling-toned complex of ideas) and proves that they behave independently of consciousness.   


Marriage ceremony with Emma Rauschenbach. From the marriage five children come of:  Agathe (Niehus) 1904, Gret (Baumann) 1906, Franz (Jung indicator) 1908, Marianne (Niehus) 1910, Helene (Hoerni) 1914.  Emma, which is described as quiet, intelligently and spontaneously merry, originates from a well-off rich Schaffhauser family.  Her internal peace seems to have compensated the often volcanic temper of Jung.  The Jung married couple begin soon to build themselves their own house at the Zurich lake in Kusnacht into which they moved in 1908.  At the hospital Jung is promoted in 1905 to the upper physician and remained four years in this function -, and after his Habilitation in psychiatry he becomes private lecturer at the University of Zurich, until 1914.

Emma Rauschenbach was the daughter of a wealthy industrialist, Johannes Rauschenbach, the then owner of IWC Schaffhausen.[2] At the time of her marriage she was the second-richest heiress in Switzerland. Jung fell in love at first sight with Emma and they were married as an act of love

The most important aspect of the house, however, was an Erasmus adagio that Jung had engraved on the stone above the entrance, which looked like a tower: “Vocatus atque non vocatus, Deus Aderit”, (Called or not), God is present . Jung had read it for the first time when he was nineteen, as he had bought a 1563 edition of Desiderius Eramus’s Collectanea Adagiorum (1466-1536), a collection of anthologies by classical authors. He was still skeptical and under the impression of his imagination when he saw God defecating over Basel Cathedral. The adagio grew in importance due to his practice, his readings and experiences with patients where he verified that the true beginning of wisdom is the fear of God. However, it implied the search and the journey to evaluate the final question of “God itself”. Aniela Jaffe says: “It is the answer that the Delphic Oracle gave to the Laacedemons when they were planning a war against Athens” (1979: 136).


Psychiatric Studies is Volume 1 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It contains papers published in German between 1902 and 1905, translated by R.F.C. Hull and edited by Sir Herbert ReadMichael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. The papers focus on descriptive and experimental psychiatry from Jung’s early days in medical practice. They show the influence on Jung of Eugen Bleuler and Pierre Janet

The book begins with Jung’s doctoral dissertation On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena, a case study of an adolescent girl who claimed to be a psychic medium.

I quote Deirdre Blair on what can be seen and confirmed at this book which contains his PhD Thesis:

His thesis is based on the observations he made about Helly Preiswerk, his cousin, when she was between 15 and 16. “The whole presentation of Helly and her family, when viewed from their point of view, is derogatory and derisive and the attempts that Jung made to disguise the girl’s identity are actually quite awkward. However, the work can also be read as the natural care of a medical student who prepared a dissertation for a basically conservative audience, which required prudence in intellectualizing ideas about it of the spiritualism and hidden phenomena that he had embraced so emotionally in his first lectures at Zoofingia. In the dissertation, the intention was to show that psychic powers come from psychological states of mind and have nothing to do with the supernatural. In a concluding paragraph that he omitted from the English version (astute candidate for the degree he was) Jung wrote in great disguises a statement that would dominate his research from that point on: that he hoped to demonstrate the ‘multiple connections’ between ‘the so-called hidden phenomena’ and the subjects in general considered appropriate for research and debate by the medical and psychological professions. Here he expressed what his creed would become: a direct conviction that it would be ‘a rich harvest for experimental psychology’, and that he hoped it would develop towards ‘a progressive elucidation and assimilation of the still extremely controversial psychology of the unconscious’ ” The curtain fell completely on what he had concluded, when he wrote that Helly had gone to France and would become “more pleasant and stable”. Without calling directly, but keeping the girl in the text, he came up with explanations for the different manifestations she embodied, such as Nietzsche’s possible cryptomnesia, or how the unconscious remembers something that was supposedly forgotten and later reproduces as his own. He was also ambiguous in saying, without referring directly to Helly that the source of his views possibly “given her youth and mentality” and intelligence, made her create alternative worlds and personalities “and that she was “just something out of the ordinary”.


When discussing the psychology of the Dementia praccox Jung justifies his call in the professional world. At his beginnings he follows Freuds theories.  In the previous year he had sent hiss work over diagnostic association studies to Freud and had opened a connection which would continue up to the year 1913 with exchanges of letters.  Freud invites Jung thereupon to come to Vienna himself.  Here it occurs that legendary first meeting, when the two Psychoanalytiker, went on for thirteen hours in a nearly nonstop discussion which made them approach to each other.  This would continue closely for some 6 years.  For the older one (Freud) it means then that he is respected because of his opinions more about intantile sexualitaet with the support of a successful psychiatrist, who is neither Austrian nor Jew what, on top of all that, “which meant that he could save the Psychoanalyse as being a jewish thing, not more than a cabalistic Viennese cult”. Jung, on his parte, thought:  “Freud is the first really meaningfull man, who I have ever met”.  Freud becomes for Jung a father figure. He almost asks his friendship in a letter (of 20.2.1908), “..not as equal one, but as a relation that only a father and son can enjoy to have “. 

In a letter, dated Nov 2 1907, Jung asked Freud what he thought about Jung being designated honorary member of the American Society for Psychical Research because of his services as “occultist”. Freud didn’t answer.  


Jung at the Burghoelzli is suggested to leave the hospital.  He is accused to neglect his obligations at the hospital in favor of his private research.  In addition the ambivalence of the relationship with Freud becomes ever clearer.  Jung then recognizes that he cannot go as one piece in the same way together with Freud:  He is not the kind of person to trail someone or follow through as it was expected from the older one in the relation.  The two combative men are engaged in an argument which would show up completely in their expedition to the USA for the “First International Psychoanalytic Congress”. It was inaugurated which attendance from Switzerland, Germany, England, the USA and Hungary.  In March 1909 Emma and Carl Jung went for the second time with Freud in Vienna to get together. The two analysts separate each other with very different feelings.  While Freud saw Jung as an “adopted” son and to the “Crown Prince”, Jung feels internally happily released “from oppressive subjugation of the father authority”.  In the newly built house in Kuesnacht in Zurich Jung opens his private practice.  Among others he takes also his Mrs. Emma in analysis.  Apart from her obligations in house and family she also takes care of her man and grows ever more immersed into the practical work of the Psychotherapy, so that she holds with her endeavours also going to seminars and in the training as a Psychotherapist. She is also invited as guest to the lectures at Clark University at Worcester/Massachusetts. This event also got Jung as well as Freud (and Ferenczi) there in the autumn. Freud and Jung got an Honor Doctor title.   

Sabina Nikolayevna Spielrein (25 October 1885 OS – 11 August 1942) was a Russian physician, from the same University of Jung and one of the first female psychoanalystis.

She was in succession the patient, then student, then colleague of Jung, with whom she had an intimate relationship during 1908–1910, as is documented in their correspondence from the time and her diaries. She also met, corresponded, and had a collegial relationship with Freud One of her more famous analysanbds was the Swiss developmental psychologist, Jean Piaget. She worked as a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, teacher and paediatrician in Switzerland and Russia.


Meets Toni Anna Wolff {1888-1953}. Wolf, then 21 years old, comes into treatment with Jung.  She became soon officially Jung’s employee and “femme inspiratrice”.  In September 1911 she accompanies Emma and Carl Gustav Jung on the Weimar congress of the “International Psychoanalytic Movement”.  The relationship is handed publicly and in psychoanalytic circles in Vienna and Zurich.  Since dissolution of the Jung marriage is not applicable, Emma must compensate herself with Jung’s lover, contending with a love triangle relationship.  Tony Wolff {1888-1953} becomes Jung closest employee and remains as his lover till his death for forty years.  Already under their co-operation appears as the first part of the book Transformations and symbols of the Libido (It is followed in the next year by a second book, revised under new edition in 1950 under the title Symbols of Transformation), where Jung carries out the separation from the Freud Psychoanalysis.  The personal friendship between Jung and Freud breaks off. 

Tony Wolf


IPA is founded in March 1910, at the Second Congress of Psychoanalysis, known as the Nuremberg Congress. Jung becomes first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association where he would stay until 1914;
Birth of his fourth child, Marianne Niehus-Jung {d. 1965};
Jung does with increasing intensity myth research.  During that pre-working to his book Transformations and Symbols of the Libido comes suddenly memories from his childhood, which he had long forgotten over thirty years.  He had manufactured a figure, Atmavictu, which now as a “Kabir emerged, as a child for avoiding his fears.  “with this memory  for the first time the conviction came to me that there are archaic mental components, which can have penetrated from no tradition into the individual soul.  There was not in the library of my father any one book,with such information contained.”  This conviction will lead it to the study of the collective unconscious one upward


The dilemma with his “father figure” becomes ever more virulent.  If he is yet to remain personally close to Freud, he must represent his line, or their friendship would stand on the play.  Freud reduces everything to sexuality and wants to raise that to dogma and this was one of the points that separate them because Jung does not feel obligate to oblige to the dogma. The marriage in crisis with Emma Jung strengthens the tensions.  The love relationship with Sabina does not stay hidden.  Emma writes letters to Freud looking for help, since it became public. She would do it again, with the lover her husband would have later, Tony Wolf.  Sabina was born in 1885 in Russia, came in 1904 into the hospital Burghoelzli looking for help, because of psychological suffering for many years.  In the following year she was in psychoanalytic treatment with Jung. In 1909 she broke off the analysis. (Freud had been informed in the meantime about that and expressed that the relationship was technically a case of transference and counter transference).  Later on she became analyst. They exchanged letters many years after aborting the relationship of common work between the two.  In 1941 she was killed by the Nazis. 


Jung returns to the United States to give a series of lectures at Fordham University in New York where he is granted an honorary doctorate recognizing his research on word association. The initial propagation of Jung in the United States can be seen in detail at Beatrice Hinkle_and_the_Early_History_of_Jungian Psychology in New York


In 1913, C.G. Jung started a unique self- experiment that he called his “confrontation with the unconscious”: an engagement with his fantasies in a waking state, which he charted in a series of notebooks referred to as The Black Books. These intimate writings shed light on the further elaboration of Jung’s personal cosmology and his attempts to embody insights from his self- investigation into his life and personal relationships. He worried at times that he was “menaced by a psychosis”. He recorded everything and transcribed his notes into a large red leather-bound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years.  The Red Book drew on material recorded from 1913 to 1916, but Jung actively kept the notebooks for many more decades.

Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society (1910). He remained a member of the Society until 1911, when he and a group of his supporters formally disengaged from Freud’s circle, being the first of the great dissenters from orthodox psychoanalysis . Jung would split in 1914).


The Red Book is a red leather‐bound folio manuscript crafted by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung between 1915 and about 1930. It recounts and comments upon the author’s psychological experiments between 1913 and 1916, and is based on manuscripts first drafted by Jung in 1914–15 and 1917. It will be examined separately on the entry The Red Book

After the separation from Freud Jung lives a time of internal uncertainty.  Jung gets involved now in an argument with his unconscious self.  That was in such a manner overwhelming with tide of pictures from his unconscious that he sees himself compelled to give up his academic career.  Before the First World War he was struck repeatedly by visions, in which a sea of blood covers Europe.  When the war breaks out, Jung sees as his most important task in understanding, in what respect his own experiencing has to do with the collective and how it is related.  “I constantly lived in an intensive tension, and it often seemed to me, as if enormous blocks fell over me.”  By regarding the whole as a scientific experiment, taken from the distance, manages to bring him some calming. Tony Wolf plays the role of “soror mystica” during his “night sea travel” as an indispensable reference person.  He encounters what he would define later as “Anima”:  his female part of the unconscious. He has it as of having life by itself, living a life of her own, leaving him without what to do. The “Anima” becomes the mediator between the conscious and the unconscious.  The counterpart to “Anima” is “Animus” as a counterpart. Jung would then for the rest of his life dedicate himself as what later he would call archetypes deep down in the unconscious .  

Anima and Animus


1916 Saw the birth of what later in the mid thirties in the USA at the MOMA, NY, would be mixed with surrealism. Tristan Tzara, Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck and Hans Richter, at the Cabaret Voltaire started the Dada movement. It would only pick up strength in the mid-1920s when it was recognized by the academy. It was a thing of emigrants.
The “Psychological Club” is created in Zurich.  The transcendental function and the structure of the unconscious has its appearance.

First International Expo Dada Movement Berlin 1920

First mandala painting, description of active imagination, and use of the terms personal unconscious, collective unconscious, individuation, animus/anima, persona. First use of the term archetype in “Instinct & the Unconscious”. Begins the study of Gnostic writings

Jung starts drawing Mandalas and after a decade in 1929 he publishes his discovery. Between 1916 and 1918 a project of Internment in Switzerland is carried out. Jung is designated Commandant of camp for interned British soldiers at Château d’Oex.

Commandant of camp for interned British soldiers at Château d’Oex;

WW I Internment Camps in Switzerland

First use of the term archetype in “Instinct & the Unconscious”

Instincts and Archetkypes


Trip to North Africa {Algeria and Tunisia}

Jung introduces his psychological Types: 

  • Extraverted sensation
  • Introverted sensation
  • Extraverted intuition
  • Introverted intuition
  • Extraverted thinking
  • Introverted thinking
  • Extraverted feeling
  • Introverted feeling

Jung deepens his studies about the Gnosticism and Gnostics


Death of his mother;
Begins building the tower in Bollingen on the shore of the Obersee basin of Lake Zürich on a acquired property in 1922 at the upper Zurich lake. He added to the original project a kind of a hut with the stove as center which became a two-story apartment tower.  It results that in a rhythm of each four years always an extension is added:  1927 the central tract with a tower-like annex, which is removed 1931 the tower is corrected again with an area for exclusive use of Jung 1935 It is extended by a yard and a loggia towards the lake 1955 After the death of his wife Emma he installs himself there and increase the center section and so the building finds its final shape.  This is for him the place, where he feels his most natural way of being.  The “age-old”, which he always already felt as a part of himself is into this building, which doesn’t have neither electricity nor flowing water, as it was in olden eras.  From then on he lived nearly half of the years there.  

The Bollingen Tower

View of the Lake from the Bollingen Tower


Jung did trips after cultural interfaces and what C. G. Jung called the cultural dimension of the psyche. 

Trip to the United States where he visits Chicago, New Mexico, Arizona, New Orleans, New York, and Washington, D.C. In 1925, while transcribing and painting in his Red Book, C. G. Jung presented a series of seminars in English in which he spoke for the first time in public about his early spiritualistic experiences, his encounter with Freud, the genesis of his psychology, and the self-experimentation he called his “confrontation with the unconscious,” describing in detail a number of pivotal dreams and fantasies. He then presented an introductory overview of his ideas about psychological typology and the archetypes of the collective unconscious, illustrated with case material and discussions concerning contemporary art. He focused particularly on the contra-sexual elements of the personality, the anima and the animus, which he discussed with the participants through psychological analyses of popular novels, such as Rider Haggard’s She. The notes from these seminars form the only reliable published autobiographical account by Jung and the clearest and most important account of the development of his work. This revised edition features additional annotations, information from the Red Book, and an introduction by Sonu Shamdasani, Philemon Professor of Jung History at University College London

In October 1925, Carl Jung embarked on his most ambitious expedition, the “Bugishu Psychological Expedition” to East Africa. He was accompanied by Peter Baynes and an American associate, George Beckwith. On the voyage to Africa, they became acquainted with an English woman named Ruth Bailey, who joined their safari a few weeks later. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgon, where Jung hoped to increase his understanding of “primitive psychology” through conversations with the culturally isolated residents of that area. Later he concluded that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised.

Mount Elgon, land of Elgonyi

Jung entered Kenya through the seaport Mombassa at the Indian Ocean, spent about two months with indigenous tribes near Mt. Elgon, then crossed into Uganda and followed the River Nile north through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to Cairo.

He returns through London, England and Marriage as a Psychological Relashinship. which refers clearly to his personal experience with the polygamous assessment of man. 

From C. G. Jung’s autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, pp. 373-377:

I first met Richard Wilhelm at Count Keyserling’s during a meeting of the “School of Wisdom” in Darmstadt. That was in the early twenties. In 1923 we invited him to Zurich and he spoke on the I Ching (or Yi Jing) at the Psychology Club.

When Sinologist Richard Wilhelm sends the manuscript of a Chinese taoist alchemical treatise with the request for a comment to it, the text proves as a undreamt-of confirmation of Jung thoughts over circling the center and thus over the Mandala. The comment on the Secret of the Golden Flower translation of Richard Wilhelm appears in 1929. (1931 in the USA)

Jung begins now his alchemical studies.  The entrance to the subject is opened only under large troubles;  it is, as it would have him to learn an unknown language.  The fact that there are agreements however between the Alchemy and the analytic psychology is evident for Jung.  “by the examination of the old texts everything found its place:  the picture world of the imaginations, the experience material, which I in my practice collected, and the conclusions, which I had drawn from it…  The Archetypes and the nature of the archetipal types moved to the center of my research, and I recognized that there is no psychology without history and quite no psychology of the unconscious without it.” 


Expedition to East Africa {Kenya, Uganda, and the Nile}

Jung’s personal myth came to consciousness during a vision he had on the Athi Plain. He researched the dream habits of Elgonyi, Bugishu, Somali and Swahili peoples on this safari, as well as those of his interesting traveling companions. The route of this 1925-26 safari was from Mombasa to Cairo, similar to Winston Churchill’s, Teddy Roosevelt’s and other wealthy adventurers. 


First explicit use of the term synchronicity


Ceases work on the Red Book;
Meets Wolfgang Pauli {1900-1958}


Jung wrote two essays on art: a more detailed criticism to Ulysses of James Joyce as well as an essay on the occasion of the large Picasso exhibition in the inhabitant of a Zurich art gallery. Since Jung became acquainted with the Irish author two years later, Joyce consulted him because of his psychologically ill daughter Lucia.  The results of this consultation, The critic and the eulogy of Ulysses can be seem in this entry. 


In 1932, Carl Gustav Jung wrote a perceptive analysis of Picasso’s psychology after seeing an exhibition of his paintings at the Zürich Kunsthaus. … He believed that Picasso’s paintings were interpretable from a psychological perspective in the same way that his patients pictures were.

 Jung was awarded the city of Zurich’s literature prize in 1932, and in 1938 he was elected honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine in England. He was made an honorary member of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences in 1944.

He is appointed docent to the ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, the biggest University of Switzerland. where he took up the academic training activity interrupted before the First World War. He will be appointed Titular Professor at the ETH Zürich in 1935 (he will leave it in 1942 for health reasons).  In the following year the university of Harvard lends him the doctor title, which is followed by Calcutta, Benares, Allahabad and Oxford. In 1944 follows the University of Basel, in 1945 Geneva, and ETH Zurich lends him the honour title of doctor of natural sciences when he is eighty-year old.  

In Germany the Nazism takes over.  He saw the Nazi movement as an enormous eruption of the collective unconscious he had previously postulated as far back as 1918 (Stern, 1976). Jung believed the archetype “Wotan,” which represented the German state of mind in the 1930’s, was the return of the collective repressed, and constituted a great event in light of the belief that the Germans were experiencing a reintegration of archaic elements into their psyche (elements that had been, over past centuries, suppressed by various cultural movements). 


First lectures at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule {ETH} Zürich;
First Eranos lecture: “A Study in the Process of Individuation”;
Meets Marie-Louise von Franz {1915-1998};
Egypt and Palestine Journey

In 1928, Carl Gustav Jung became a member of the International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy. Jung was elected vice president in 1930 and was asked to assume the presidency in 1933 due to the deteriorating political climate. It was believed that Jung, being a Swiss National and thus neutral, would be in a better political position to handle the role. Later that year, there was a reorganization of Zentralblatt fur Psychotherapie, the society’s publication journal. The decision was made that two separate but aligned editions of the journal would be published: an international edition edited by Jung, and a German edition under the control of Matthias Heinrich Goring, the cousin of the now infamous Marshall, Herman Goring for the purpose of ensuring that all material conformed to Nazi ideology (Sherry, 1986). It was soon after recommended by Goring that every practicing psychotherapist adopt Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf as a basic reference. This written appeal was slated for publication in the German edition of the journal but somehow ended up in the international journal above Carl Jung’s signature (Gallard, 1994; Sherry, 1986). Though the society’s headquarters were located in Switzerland and he was certainly far removed from this “Nazi deception,” it was a commonly held belief that Jung accepted the presidency of a Nazified German organization; thus he must be a sympathizer.


On his behalf, his biographer Deirdre Bair claims Jung’s name was used to endorse persecution without his consent. Jung was incensed, “not least,” Mark Vernon writes at The Guardian, “because he was actually fighting to keep German psychotherapy open to Jewish individuals.” Bair also reveals that Jung was “involved in two plots to oust Hitler, essentially by having a leading physician declare the Führer mad. Both came to nothing.” And unlike Heidegger, Jung strongly denounced anti-Semitic views during the war. He “protected Jewish analysts,” writes Conger, “and helped refugees.” He also worked for the OSS, precursor to the CIA, during the war.

A detailed defense of Jung

Where things do not look so good for Jung

Eranos Conferences get started


This entry is based in Erich Neumann’s Analythical Psychology in Exile

(Philemon Series) Analytical Psychology in Exile_ The Correspondence of C. G. Jung and Erich Neumann –

At the congress of the “International Gesellschatt for Medical Psychotherapie” (IAAGP) in bath Nauheim, presents his controversial article “The State of Psychotherapy Today” (“Zur gegenwärtigen Lage der Psychotherapie”) published in the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie und ihre Grenzgebiete, which was the journal of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy (Allgemeine ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie). In his article, Jung emphasized the importance of the “personal equation” in psychotherapy. He deploys the idea that the analyst must be conscious of his own shadow and uses this argument in order to attack Freud and Adler, who allegedly ignored or repressed their Jewish resentments toward non-Jews. This, according to Jung, led to a fatal situation in which Jewish categories were wrongly applied to the unconscious of Christian Germans or Slavs. Especially the argument that “the Jew is a relative nomad” and would never be able to create his own form of culture because of his need for a civilized “host people” (Wirtsvolk), was received with a certain bewilderment among his Jewish followers in Palestine.  

The most controversial issue about the supposed anti semitism of Jung came up when he took over the presidency of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy (succeeding Kretschmer) at a time when the German section was “gleichgeschaltet” (equalized) and Jewish membership prohibited. In his opening address as the new president (published in December 1933 in the Zentralblatt) Jung demanded that in the interests of scientific clarity, the confusion between Jewish and Germanic psychology should cease. The pledge for allegiance (Treuegelöbnis), as Jung later called it, to the Führer by the German section of the society, which was originally meant to be for the German edition only, was distributed along with the international edition—according to Aniela Jaffé without Jung being informed—and caused fury among many supporters. Bally replied to this as follows: He who introduces himself as editor of a “gleichgeschaltete” (synchronized) by raising the race question has to know that his demand rises against a background of organized tumult, which will interpret it in the manner implicitly contained in these words. Jung reacted to Bally’s attack with an article in the NZZ titled “Rejoinder to Dr. Bally” (“Zeitgenössisches”). There he defended his presidency as an act of self-sacrifice for the sake of the survival of German psychotherapy. Regarding the accusations of anti-Semitism, Jung repeats his arguments and talks about the imponderabilities of the soul differences between Jews and Christians—everyone, he argues, would know about those differences. And he opposes the argument that he only dared to engage with that topic now that Nazis were in power in Germany, by stating that he had already espoused race-psychological ideas in articles in 1918 and 1927. In a letter dated 26 May 1934, written a week before Kirsch’s article in the Jüdische Rundschau, Jung tries to appease Kirsch, who had told him about the hostile reactions in Palestine toward his statements. Referring to the internationalization of the AÄGP, now IAAGP, he reports on the new statutes from the congress in Bad Nauheim that would make it possible for German Jewish physicians to join the international organization as individual members. He also refines his argument about the impossibility of forming a unique Jewish culture:  

“This view is based on (1) historical facts, and (2) the additional fact that the specific cultural contribution of the Jews evolves most clearly within a host-culture, where the Jew frequently becomes the very carrier of this culture, or its promoter. This task is so unique and  demanding that it is hardly to be conceived how, in addition, any individual Jewish culture could arise alongside it. Now, since Palestine presents very unique conditions, I have cautiously inserted “presumably” in my sentence. I would not deny the possibility that something unique is being created there, but I don’t know that as yet. I positively cannot discover anything antiSemitic in this opinion.”  

More details at the book mentioned at the beginning of this entry above


Appointed titular professor at the ETH Zürich;
Tavistock Lectures at the Institute of Medical Psychology, London: “Analytical Psychology: Its Theory & Practice”

The Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Psychoterapie is founded.

Jung is awarded a professorship at the ETH. His inauguration lecture from 5 May 1934 is titled “A review of the complex theory” (Allgemeines zur Komplextheorie”. He was 60 years old.

Jung made several trips to Britain throughout his lifetime. In 1913, he delivered two papers in London: one to the Psycho-Medical Society on August 5th and one during the 17th International Congress of Medicine, held between August 6th and 12th (McGuire [ed], 1974: 549). At the end of July 1914, Jung gave a lecture to the British Medical Association at a congress held in Aberdeen (Jung, 1961/1989: 176). At the end of WWI, Jung was invited by the Royal Society of Medicine and the Society for Psychical Research to give three lectures in July 1919 (Bair, 2003: 304). Between July 30th and August 6th 1938, Jung participated in the 10th International Medical Congress for Psychotherapy held at Oxford, where he discussed his efforts to promote dialogue amongst the varying schools of psychotherapy (Hayman1999/2002: 359- 60; Shamdasani, 2005-2006: 3-5). During this visit, he was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Oxford. Barbara Hannah recounts: ‘A great many universities awarded honorary degrees on him [Jung], but the only time I remember Jung being at all excited by such an honour was at Oxford’ (Hannah quoted in Shamdasani, 2005-2006)

More details about Tavistock at: Foreword_Tavi Lectures_FINAL_KL

A trace of these visits is the C.G. Jung Club London

At Eranos conference in his lecture on dream symbols of the Individuation process Jung for the first time presents view of his detailed research on Alchemy. 

Jung sees the national socialism as outbreak of an archetypal driven phenomena.  The pagan God explains it more than rational interpretations, it is the “storm and shower God, which unleashes the passions and the Fighting greed, and on top of that a powerful wizard creator of an illusion”, which could stimulate the mass to “things”, “from whom we can make ourselves now however still badly a conception…” He repeats this interpretations in 1937 in London, where he holds a lecture on psychology and the “National Problem”. He does it again new Haven/Connecticut, where the Terry Lectures are given to the Yale University with psychology and religion overwritten. This marks the end of the yearly travels on invitation of the British-Indian government to India.  Freud emigrates in 1938 to London.  It takes place the last congress of the “International Society” under Jung Presidency.    


Jung publishes the writing Wotan

Trip to the United States, accompanied by Emma, to lecture at Harvard University’s Tercentenary Conference of Arts and Sciences and receives an honorary Doctorate of Science; visit to Bailey Island, Maine. The justification and explanation of Jung’s supposed anti semitism have an american supporter at


Trip to the United States, accompanied by Emma, to deliver the Dwight Harrington Terry Lectures at Yale University: “Psychology and Religion”

More considerations on these trips and lectures at the final entry in the 1961 entry at the end of this Biography

More detail about trips at: Jung’s Travels between first and second WW.


Visit to India where he is bestowed honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Calcutta, the Islamic University of Allahabad, and the Hindu University of Benares;
Receives honorary Doctor of Sciences from Oxford University;
Appointed Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, London


The war, the “German Psychose”, breaks out.  Jung “stands by to the assistance in various relief organizations.  He, aligned with the Non-politicians, was not persuaded to stand as a candidate with the Swiss national council elections, although receiving sufficient voices “.  When Freud dies on 23 September in his exile at London, Jung publishes a kind of ring back signal, in which he refrains neither from appreciation nor from criticism.  Jung says that Freud was from the 19th century as a “large destroyer”, but by far, the gold resided elsewhere:  “Freud was a < mental specialist > (in this word strictest meaning) and as such at any regard also remained.  He was not a psychiatrist, not a psychologist and not a philosopher.  Thinking in the most elementary education elements concerned, they were missing in regards to philosophy.”  Although unexpressed he suggests that Freud was pointed in analogy to Moses and the promised land of the unconscious, but, actually, he didn’t entered there.   


Mathias Goering goes on “synchronising” the “international society”, whose presidency Jung had given up just before, and shifts its seat from Zurich to Berlin.  Jung writings are forbidden in Germany.  In this time Jung expresses himself for the first time in detail about psychology and religion particularly in the delicate question of a confrontation of psychology and religious world view.  In Pararelsica.  Two lectures on the physician and philosopher Throphrastus (1942), a publication of the lecture of 1941, this question is continued to discuss.  Approximately around Switzerland the war rages.  Apart from his lecture and travel activity, beside its work as analysts, researchers and an author Jung maintains the leisure also in this turbulent time.  In Bollingen are to be fallen three trees.  It takes itself all time to saw and chop it into pieces.  On the question about the “simple life” he means 1941 among other things:  “all time-saving means, to which traffic easements and other comforts belong, save paradoxically no time, but serve for it, the existing time to only full-stop up in such a way that one has at all no more time.  From this develop inevitably breathless haste, superficialness and nervous fatigue with all pertinent symptoms such as attraction hunger, impatience, attraction barness, flutter etc..”


Resigns appointment as professor at the ETH Zürich


First heart attack

Jung is appointed as Professor at the University Basel in one of the basic courses of preparation for medical psychology, created for him. After the first lecture, at 69, he must retreat because of health reasons, he stops the lectures and return later.  Unconscious, old, delirious, he experiences having also visions, – in such a way that he sees the earth from a height of 1500 kilometers -, which he describes in his biography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections.  His spirit resists  to descend again to the terrestrial “Prison system”.  The fight takes three weeks.  When finally life triumphs, his physician who had come to meet him in his visions, dies, “Placing Jung’s experiences against each other, which he interpreted on one hand as” night sea travel for the soul”, and on the other hand under as the picture of the ascent highly over the planet earth, we could then say:  In the course of his fateful fight with the unconscious he added the dimension of psychological depth as a mirror-image-ritual with the high.

The event opened the condition and gave clearance to psychologically cogitate of Transpersonal experience exceeding the “Pneumatic One” (Principle of life, God).  It was not a coincidence that the religious steps he took even more strongly during the second half of his life (Defending, or explaining, his work).  Jung said, in 1945:  “the principal interest of my work lies not in the treatment of neuroses, but in the approximation to the Numinous.  It is however like that that the entrance to the Numinous is the actual therapy, and to that extent one arrived at experiencing the numinous, that is released to a person by the curse of the illness.”  After direct death proximity the lover of the soul, how he calls himself in one of his works, another seventeen years went by, in which many of Jung top works develop.  One of them is psychology and Alchemy, regarded as religious philosophy. 


Jung is accused of Anti-Semitic and Nazi-friendly tendencies, and publishes as statement an essay to contemporary history.  Controversial at that time this work remained for “contemporary history” until today.  Many persons and coworkers testify how he exerted favourably for his Jewish colleagues.  On his behalf E.A. Bennet wrote:  “those who wanted to attribute Nazi-friendly inclinations to him, appeared to Jung all the more ridiculously, as he knew from well informed sources that his name was on the black list of the Nazis…”  He insists “that Jung tried to continue to exert his power in order to protect and to help Jewish psychiatrists and psychologists, who had been pursued in Germany and had to flee.  Many of these refugees came to London, to notice that also different not-Jewish physicians supported Jung’s ideas fascinated about the creative contents of the collective unconscious. They agreed the strong influence of these archetypes in the explosion of the National Socialism, which happened with the outbreak of unconscious forces.  In the course of the years, however, the decisive role of consciousness became clearer as to recognize and assuming responsibility”, states Aniela Jaffé.  When in September 1946 Winston Churchill paid off an official attendance to the city Zurich, Jung received the honour to sit beside Churchill.  If he was a Persona non grata, this wouldn’t have happened certainly.  His next publications are about psychology and education and the psychology of transference.   


Inauguration of the C.G. Jung Institute Zürich.

The journey for the establishment of C G. Jung lnstitute comes from the Psychological Club, in particular from Jolande Jacobi.  Jung is not an opinion, he represents not a doctrine, he makes public his teachings, and he does not want also “blind trailers”.  Finally he sees as appropriate to support the enterprise and the Institute is created on 24 April. 

He publishes Symbolism of the Spirit.


On 1 April, a Friday, with Jung having fish at lunch time.  Someone reminds him of the custom of the “April fish” (“April fool”).  In the morning Jung had noted down the following inscription:  “holistic humans are from edge to the center a fish.”  A female patient shows impressive fish pictures in the afternoon.  In the evening he gets embroidered sea monsters so everybody can see it.  On 2 April a female patient tells him a dream, into which she saw a large fish.  – Jung was working then on an investigation over the fish symbol, from which the involved ones did not know anything, with one exception.  When he noted all these coincidences, he goes out for a walking and sees:  Before him on the sea-wall a dead, apparent intact fish lies…  The sevenfold accumulation of the motive makes it impossible to remain unconsidered.  Jung didn’t dare to publish yet his suspicion that it concerns corresponding, acausal, but nevertheless coherent coincidences, This happened only two years after he had in the close circle of the Eranos conferences, supported with detailed statistic experiments, assumptions over the phenomenon, which he calls Synchronicity and since over twenty years he already employs it.  In contrast to synchronism, the bare simultaneousness happening of two events, the term Synchronicity means a meeting of two or several events not referred causally one on the other, which of same thing or similar to each other.  When his investigations made him aware about the intuitive entireness knowledge of the Chinese, as it is the case when the I Ching is used, but also the western dotting art of geomancy which came into oblivion, he sees in it an intuitive technology practiced to make a holistic picture possible as it is the case of Astrology under a magnifying glass.  


Carves the square stone at his retreat in Bollingen

On Carl Jung’s 75th Birthday Stone: “I am an orphan, alone: nevertheless I am found everywhere.” 

In the year, in which Pope Pius XII. announces the dogma The Assumption of Mary thus the female within the Christian doctrine assumes value – on such a necessity Jung already had referred seriously -, It seems to Jung as a re organizations of the unconscious.


First full-scale work on the subject of synchronicity: Eranos lecture, “On Synchronicity” are published Aion, and holds its last Eranos lecture for Jung, over synchronicity. 


Second heart attack

1952 follow his confessionful book Answer to Job, which causes violent reactions and meets with hostility, which drive it even on the American best-seller lists.  With Synchronicity as a principle of acausal connections (1952), in cooperation with Wolfgang Pauli, solves Jung, as it in the preface writes, “as it were a promise, at whose fulfilment I did not dare myself many years long…  If I overcame now my shyness nevertheless, then it happened mainly, because… my experiences with the Synchronicity phenomenon from decades accumulated themselves…  “with a mixture of caution, advance notice of humiliation and an appointment to his broad and deep experience as a physician Jung introduces the attempt here to widen” the basis of nature realization.”


Receives honorary Doctorate in Natural Sciences from the ETH Zürich;
Death of his wife Emma

 “my name enjoys almost an existence independent of me.  My true I chops wood in Bollingen and cooks the meals and tries to forget troubles of a eightieth birthday.”  He does not forget the environment to the care of the internal development albeit into his high age.  When 1956 Soviet troops strike down the Hungarian rebellion, he writes statements, in which it condemns this crime.  Repeatedly he expresses himself to the Phenomenon of the UFOs.  “1955 were bent its high shape easy and worked nearly fragil.  The gentleness was however usually ignored, because it faded behind a power radiating from him;  nobody could avoid from the impression, which met it “(Jaffé).  His birthday is solemnly commemorated, first in the private circle in Kuesnacht – the family nevertheless embraced with the first great-grandchildren and approximately forty persons, and then within the official framework.  In the same year Emma Jung dies on 27 November. Her work on the Holy Grail in psychological view is not yet completed.  It would be taken over by Marie Louise of Franz;  the book appears 1960.  Ruth Bailey becomes the housekeeper.  Jung stil enjoys once passionately traveler drives into the closer environment or into the neighboring countries, usually in company of Ruth Bailey, which already was in East Africa also, and Fowler McCormick, which had accompanied Jung to the Pueblos.  Jung had an extensive correspondence to the end of his life.  Already in 1953 began the context of the Bollingen Series, New York, to publish Jung Collected Works:  Of the roots of consciousness (1954) and Mysterium Coniunctionis, volume I (1955) and II (1956), the keystone for the topic of the confrontation of Alchemy and psychology of the unconscious, for many Jung mainwork. 


Begins to work with Aniela Jaffé on his autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections;
BBC television interview with John Freeman

To publish a Biography Jung accepts the idea in the preceding summer on suggestion of the publisher Kurt Wolff starting from spring 1957.  First Aniela Jaffé, which had made in herhirties her analysis with Jung and starting from 1947 became Secretary of the C G. Jung institute, later as his personal secretary to help him in his as a “Biographer”.  By placing questions, to which Jung answers, it is arranged for him to tell abou his life.  Jung didn’t believe in writing an autobiography, as he tells in a letter that year, “I could’nt already introduce myself at all.  I know too many Autobiographies and their self-deceptions and purpose lies in the fact that I know very much about the impossibility of a self description, and I could dare an attempt in this regard.”  He had been very reluctant about his private life always.  By the end of the year he begins to write over his childhood. As he goes, he feels that he is pressioned to do it by his unconscious and accepts to dictate it to Aniela Jaffé.

Jung starts interviews with Richard Evans. Further discussions on his ideas are held by a Swiss broadcat. In the following year his collected works begin to appear, in addition his work A Modern Myth comes out.  On the occasion of his 85th  Birthday he is appointed honour citizen by Kuesnacht.


Finishes his last work 10 days before his death: “Approaching the Unconscious”;
Dies on June 6 at his home in Küsnacht

Immediately after his 85th birthday Jung gets seriously sick, but recovers. He applies himself for his last publication:  – with intention – the book should be popular and about symbols (Man and his symbols, 1968), an introduction to the analytic psychology, for which he contributes the opening chapter to the unconscious, in which he summarizes:  “in one period of human history, since all available energy becomes related on the study of nature, one examines the conscious functions of humans, but the really complicated part of the spirit, which brings the symbols out, is still to a large extent unexplored.  It seems nearly unbelievable that, although we receive each night from there signals a deciphering of these reports appears too annoying for most humans.  The most important instrument of humans, its psyche, is hardly considered, regarded often even with distrust and contempt.  < that is only psychologically > how it is called it very frequently:  It does not mean nothing at all.”  After weeks of his illness C G. Jung dies on 6 June in his house at Kuesnacht.  Soon after his death a thunderstorm arises, and lightning hits into a high poplar tree, which is located in Jung garden at the lake.  – the funeral on the cemetery of Kuesnacht takes place on 9 June.  

The best cap I found to give an appraisal about Jung at large is found at Reaction to Jung in the USA

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